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Sophie Hugo died in 1821, and the couple were able to marry the following year, when Hugo was 21. The book was dedicated to Guernsey, where he lived for 15 years. and crew who accepted the challenge. Victor was the third son of Joseph-Léopold-Sigisbert Hugo, a major and, later, general in Napoleon’s army. Her history and arts writing has been featured on Slate, HowlRound, and BroadwayWorld.​. The journalist Charles Nodier was enthusiastic about it and drew Hugo into the group of friends, all devotees of Romanticism, who met regularly at the Bibliothèque de L’Arsenal. In particular, his novels The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Les Misérables have had a long and popular life, with multiple adaptations and entry into mainstream popular culture. Hugo’s early writings were not solely confined to poetry, though. The Hunchback of Notre-Dame), an evocation of life in medieval Paris during the reign of Louis XI. Hugo was…. The chronologi cal order usually followed is undesirable. Hugo restated the problems of his century and the great and eternal human questions, and he spoke with a warmhearted eloquence and reasonableness that moved people’s souls. Juliette had little talent and soon renounced the stage in order to devote herself exclusively to him, becoming the discreet and faithful companion she was to remain until her death in 1883. Hugo’s mother was primarily responsible for his upbringing, and as a result, his early education was both intensely religious and strongly biased towards pro-monarchy sentiments. In this play Hugo extolled the Romantic hero in the form of a noble outlaw at war with society, dedicated to a passionate love and driven on by inexorable fate. In this new introduction by Bradley Stephens (literary scholar at the University of Bristol), the ongoing modern relevance of Hugo's classic gothic novel is explored in terms of its cinematic and political elements. . Hugo covered a wide variety of literary themes throughout his career, ranging from politically charged content to much more personal writings. Les misérables, book V. Hugo of Iceland -- v. Corrections? Victor Hugo circa 1840, engraving by J. Sartain from the original painting by Maurir. Hugo’s intense grief found some mitigation in poems that later appeared in Les Contemplations, a volume that he divided into “Autrefois” and “Aujourd’hui,” the moment of his daughter’s death being the mark between yesterday and today. Victor Hugo (February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French poet and novelist during the Romantic Movement. He also produced two more novels, which returned to more political and social themes. His first collection of poetry, titled Odes et poésies diverses was published when he was only 20 years old. They were well-matched in personality and in age (Foucher was only one year younger than Hugo), but his mother strongly disapproved of their relationship. Identify a few of these different types, then compare and contrast them. Behind Hugo’s concern for classical form and his political inspiration, it is possible to recognize in these poems a personal voice and his own particular vein of fantasy. Victor Hugo said: "I condemn slavery, I banish poverty, I teach ignorance, I treat disease, I lighten the night, and I hate hatred. Memories of his life as a poor student later inspired the figure of Marius in his novel Les Misérables. The story follows former convict, Jean Valjean, who spent nearly two decades in prison for stealing food for his family. Victor Hugo, in full Victor-Marie Hugo, (born February 26, 1802, Besançon, France—died May 22, 1885, Paris), poet, novelist, and dramatist who was the most important of the French Romantic writers. The novel is a critical statement against human suffering, poverty, and ignorance. The actual impact of the play owed less to the plot than to the sound and beat of the verse, which was softened only in the elegiac passages spoken by Hernani and Doña Sol. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The novel sprawls over a few decades, interweaving stories of an escaped parolee, a dogged policeman, an abused factory worker, a rebellious young rich man, and more, all leading up to the June Rebellion of 1832, a historical populist uprising that Hugo had witnessed himself. Hugo eventually settled in Guernsey, a small island under British jurisdiction in the English Channel off the French coast of Normandy. VIDEO "Sanctuary" Clip from the 1938 Film Get your cheesy on. There are at least three different types of impoverished people in Les Misérables : the pitiful poor, the purified poor, and the wicked poor. From this time he almost ceased to publish, partly because of the demands of society and political life but also as a result of personal loss: his daughter Léopoldine, recently married, was accidentally drowned with her husband in September 1843. By almost universal consent he is recognized as the greatest French poet; he is one of the greater poets of the world. Hugo believed the novel to be the pinnacle of his work, and it became immensely popular among readers almost instantly. Hugo began writing as a very young man, with his first publication coming in 1822, the same year as his marriage. He had two older brothers: Abel Joseph Hugo (born 1798) and Eugène Hugo (born 1800). So intense was Hugo’s creative activity during these years that he also continued to pour out plays. A musical production of Les Misérables was performed in Tehran, Iran in 2018. Ruy Blas, a play in verse, appeared in 1838 and was followed by Les Burgraves in 1843. The youthful vigour of these poems was also characteristic of another collection, Les Orientales (1829), which appealed to the Romantic taste for Oriental local colour. He continued his political career via election to the National Assembly of the Second Republic in 1848, where he broke ranks with his fellow conservatives to denounce widespread poverty and to advocate for universal suffrage, the abolition of the death penalty, and free education for all children. The subject of this play, with its near-contemporary overtones, is that of a national leader risen from the people who seeks to be crowned king. His childhood was coloured by his father’s constant traveling with the imperial army and by the disagreements that soon alienated his parents from one another. Hugo’s life during this period was also subject to some immense personal tragedy, which influenced his writing for some time. Victor Marie Hugo was born in Besancon, France, in 1802. Though regarded in France as one of that country’s greatest poets, he is better known abroad for such novels as Notre-Dame de Paris (1831) and Les Misérables (1862). Later in his career, Hugo became notable for his focus on themes of justice and suffering. He is, certainly, among the most recognizable French writers, and his works continue to be widely read, studied, and adapted in the modern day. In 1845, he was raised to the peerage by King Louis Philippe I and spent his career in the Higher Chamber speaking out for issues of social justice—against the death penalty, for freedom of the press. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Victor-Hugo, Utah Shakespeare Festival - Biography of Victor Hugo, Guernsey Museums and Galleries - Victor Hugo, Victor Hugo - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Hugo returned to France in 1870, but his life was never quite the same. Medievalism and Modernity in Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre-Dame This article talks about the history behind the novel, the medieval city of Paris, and the things Hugo decided to up and change about both in his novel. He demanded a verse drama in which the contradictions of human existence—good and evil, beauty and ugliness, tears and laughter—would be resolved by the inclusion of both tragic and comic elements in a single play. Like his hero, Hugo became both an icon of Romanticism and an involved party in politics, which eventually led to his exile from his homeland. V ICTOR M ARIE H UGO, always mentioned as Victor Hugo, is unquestionably the greatest literary figure of nineteenth-century France. He was already filling notebooks with verses, translations—particularly from Virgil—two tragedies, a play, and elegies. 1793, Year Two of the Republic, saw the establishment of the National Convention, the execution of Louis XVI, the Terror, and the monarchist revolt in the Vendée, brutally suppressed by the Republic. In some cases, in his novels, Hugo’s narrative voice goes into immense detail about specific ideas or places, with intensely descriptive language. Hugo composed a poem in honour of this event, Dicté aprés juillet 1830. Prahl, Amanda. Léopold enlisted in the army of Revolutionary Franceat fourteen, he was an atheist and an ardent supporter of th… It was a forerunner of much of his political verse. Victor Hugo (1802–1885), novelist, poet, playwright, and French national icon, is best known for two of today’s most popular world classics: Les Misérables and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, as well as other works, including The Toilers of the Sea and The Man Who Laughs. For the most part, though, he spent his early years in Paris with his mother. "Biography of Victor Hugo, French Writer." They had their first child, Leopold, in 1823, but he died in infancy. In fact, the preface to Cromwell, as an important statement of the tenets of Romanticism, has proved far more important than the play itself. It’s a captivating story marked by love, betrayal and ultimately, loss. Such a type of drama would abandon the formal rules of classical tragedy for the freedom and truth to be found in the plays of William Shakespeare. By this time, realism and naturalism were coming into vogue, and Hugo’s Romantic style decreased in popularity. Introduction. Hugo’s literary achievement was recognized in 1841 by his election, after three unsuccessful attempts, to the French Academy and by his nomination in 1845 to the Chamber of Peers. Victor Hugo was a keen poet, novelist, dramatist, essayist, pamphleteer, diarist, politician and moralist of French romance. He found relief above all in working on a new novel, which became Les Misérables, published in 1862 after work on it had been set aside for a time and then resumed. Cromwell itself, though immensely long and almost impossible to stage, was written in verse of great force and originality. Though regarded in France as one of that country’s greatest poets, he is better known abroad for such novels as Notre-Dame de Paris (1831; The Hunchback of Notre-Dame) and Les Misérables (1862). Prahl, Amanda. Poet, novelist, and dramatist Victor Hugo is considered the most important of the French Romantic writers. (2020, August 29). Il est né le 26 février 1802, à Besançon, il … Because of the stream of tourists who loved the novel and wanted to visit the real cathedral, the city of Paris began a major renovation project in 1844. General introduction / by Robert Louis Stevenson. His death sparked mourning across France due to his immense influence and the affection the French held for him. The fusion of the contemporary with the apocalyptic was always a particular mark of Hugo’s genius. A summary of Part X (Section13) in Victor Hugo's Hunchback of Notre Dame. But Hugo was not content merely to express personal emotions; he wanted to be what he called the “sonorous echo” of his time. Thanks to you, holy progress, the Revolution vibrates today in the air, in the voice, in Omissions? The renovations and restorations lasted for 20 years and included the replacement of the famous spire; the spire built during this period stood for nearly 200 years, until it was destroyed in the 2019 Notre Dame fire. Les Miserables, a well-written, spellbinding novel by Victor Hugo, paints a vivid picture of redemption and grace through its intricate plot, set against the violent and idealistic French revolution. Victor Hugo couldn't stand the idea that so many people had fought and died for nothing, and he was determined to use art to do what war couldn't – create real social change. It was a chaotic time for Victor, continually uprooted from Paris to set out for Elba or Naples or Madrid, yet always returning to Paris with his mother, whose royalist opinions he initially adopted. Victor-Marie Hugo [viktɔʁ maʁi yɡo] (Besançon, 1802. február 26. – Párizs, 1885. május 22.) Hugo immediately retorted with Hernani, the first performance of which, on February 25, 1830, gained victory for the young Romantics over the Classicists in what came to be known as the battle of Hernani. The fall of the empire gave him, from 1815 to 1818, a time of uninterrupted study at the Pension Cordier and the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, after which he graduated from the law faculty at Paris, where his studies seem to have been purposeless and irregular. Born in Besançon in Franche-Comté, a region in eastern France, Hugo was the third son born to Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo and Sophie Trébuchet Hugo. Most famously, of course, he focused Les Misérables on the plight of the poor and the horrors of injustice, which are depicted both on an individual scale (the journey of Jean Valjean) and a societal one (the June Rebellion). There were two motives for this: first, he needed a platform for his political and social ideas, and, second, he wished to write parts for a young and beautiful actress, Juliette Drouet, with whom he had begun a liaison in 1833. Poète, romancier, auteur de théâtre, critique, journaliste, historien, Victor Hugo est sans conteste l'un des géants de la littérature française. In the latter category, he wrote several of his most acclaimed poems about his daughter’s untimely death and his own grief. Even in his own time, Hugo’s work had influence beyond just literary audiences. In 1826 he also published Odes et ballades, an enlarged edition of his previously printed verse, the latest of these poems being brilliant variations on the fashionable Romantic modes of mirth and terror. In the end, it was the readers who won out: Les Mis became a genuine phenomenon which remains popular in the modern day, and has been translated into many languages and adapted into several other mediums. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Les Miserables [with Biographical Introduction]. In December 1846, he witnessed an altercation between an old woman scavenging through rubbish and a street urchin who might have been Gavroche. Biography of Victor Hugo, French Writer. Hugo wrote "À Villequier,” one of his most famous poems, in mourning for his daughter. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The first of these plays was another verse drama, Le Roi s’amuse (1832; Eng. The Original Masterwork: Victor Hugo's Les Misérables - Duration: 11:12. By the time you get through this novel, you'll see just how much a society can work against its poorest and most vulnerable members. An Introduction to French Poetry: Hugo's "Demain, des l'aube..." by William Beauchamp VICTOR HUGO'S "Demain, des l'aube" (Contemplations, IV, 14) is unusually effective as an initiation into French poetry: it is short, accessible to students still unsure of the language, complex enough to pose many of the basic problems of textual analysis. Hugo’s childhood was a time of immense political and military turmoil in France. Victor Hugo was an influential proponent of Romanticism. Its popularity led to a surge of interest in the real Notre Dame cathedral in Paris, which had fallen into disrepair as a result of ongoing neglect. He expressed his concerns for the welfare of others and of historical institutions, with themes reflecting his own republican beliefs and his anger at injustices and inequality. Victor-Marie Hugo was born on 26 February 1802 in Besançon in Eastern France. He is also remembered for the verbal inventiveness and technical virtuosity with which he created poems ranging from intimate lyrics to visionary and prophetic epics. His work was a strong influence in the music world, especially given his friendship with composers Franz Liszt and Hector Berlioz, and many operas and other musical works were inspired by his writing—a trend which continues into the contemporary world, with the musical version of Les Misérables becoming one of the most popular musicals of all time. Introduction: Victor Hugo, the Ocean p. 1 The Divine Stenographer p. 11 The Dark Vein of Destiny p. 34 The Law of Chance or the Order of Coincidence p. 34 The Irresistible Traps p. 41 The Ambush in the Gorbeau Tenement p. 43 The Barricade at la Chanvrerie p. 45 The Paris Sewers p. 47 Elusive Freedom p. 52 Touchy Monsters p. 56 Instead, it told a quasi-mythic tale about a young man trying to bring home a ship to impress his father, while battling natural forces and a giant sea monster. The Hunchback of Notre Dame, historical novel by Victor Hugo, originally published in French in 1831 as Notre-Dame de Paris (‘Our Lady of Paris’). The poems were so admired for their elegant language and passion that they came to the attention of the king, Louis XVIII, and earned Hugo a royal pension. His plays Cromwell (1827) and Hernani (1830) were at the epicenter of literary debates about the Romantic Movement’s tenets versus the rules of neoclassical writing. trans. 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