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Il ne pouvait pas donc avoir vu passer les bateaux espagnols qui s'étaient contentés de longer la côte Nord d'Ouest en Est. But, since about 1840, activists have worked to create a quasi-indigenous Taíno identity in rural areas of Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Web. Malgré un métissage avec d'autres ethnies qui arrivèrent à Porto Rico (parmi eux les Espagnols et les déportés africains), certains individus de ces communautés tainas résiduelles ont révélé posséder 98 % de sang taïno. Info. Other fruits and vegetables, such as palm nuts, guavas, and Zamia roots, were collected from the wild. Cependant, suite aux mauvais traitements qu'ils reçurent des nouveaux arrivants, les caciques organisèrent leurs forces et rejetèrent leurs agresseurs qui avaient pour but de les asservir. This improved soil drainage and fertility as well as delaying erosion, allowed for longer storage of crops in the ground. [citation needed]. In addition to the guanín, the cacique used other artifacts and adornments to serve to identify his role. Over time, some of their mixed-race descendants intermarried with Africans, creating a tripartite Creole culture. [76] Under the pretense of searching for gold and other materials,[77] many Spaniards took advantage of the regions now under control of the anaborios and Spanish encomenderos to exploit the native population by seizing their land and wealth. [51] The primary root crop was yuca or cassava, a woody shrub cultivated for its edible and starchy tuberous root. At night they would assume the form of bats and eat the guava fruit. Sur toutes les grandes Antilles les archéologues ont découvert des terrains de pelote. Tainos that refused where murdered if they did not meet the amount of gold per day their hands where cut off. These trays have been found with ornately carved snuff tubes. [53], Iguanaboína was the goddess of the good weather. Les deux sexes s'appliquaient de la peinture corporelle noire, blanche, rouge et jaune. Cinquante ans après le début de la colonisation, en vertu des raisons évoquées précédemment, ils avaient quasiment tous disparus. The Taíno were an indigenous people of the Caribbean. Le monde taïno était divisé en quatre parties et un centre que gouvernaient respectivement le soleil et son jumeau Guatauba, tous deux fils du Dieu Yocahú, créateur des montagnes et du feu. Other names for her include Atabei, Atabeyra, Atabex, and Guimazoa. Population (french edition), 2016, vol. The nitaínos functioned as sub-caciques in villages, overseeing the work of naborias. The Taíno had avunculocal post-marital residence, meaning a newly married couple lived in the household of the maternal uncle. Fields for important root crops, such as the staple yuca, were prepared by heaping up mounds of soil, called conucos. Si vous disposez d'ouvrages ou d'articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l'article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références ». Les Taïnos croyaient en deux dieux : celui du bien (Yukiyú) et celui du mal (Juracán). The Taíno were the most culturally advanced of the Arawak group to settle in what is now Puerto Rico. Ainsi, les Taïnos peuvent être considérés comme des Arawaks car ils parlaient une langue arawakienne. The Taíno believed they were descended from the union of the cultural hero Deminán Caracaracol and a female turtle. Similarly, "Island Taíno" has been used to refer to those living in the Windward Islands only, to the northern Caribbean inhabitants only, as well as to the indigenous population of all the Caribbean islands. Introduction Ils ont ete engages dans l exploitation Les tainos etaient le groupe ethnique qui a developpe la premiere culture sur l ile et les premieres incursions aux antilles, C est la culture que Christophe Colomb a decouvert en arrivent sur l ile en 1492. [74] The encomienda system brought many Taíno to work in the fields and mines in exchange for Spanish protection,[75] education, and a seasonal salary. Quand Oviedo parle du couple divin, il déclare : « Le cemi est le seigneur du monde, du ciel et de la terre. [44] They were also expected to direct and manage the food production process. Their dugout canoes (kanoa) were made in various sizes, which could hold from 2 to 150 people. [66] Women seem to have participated in all levels of the Taíno political hierarchy, occupying roles as high up as being cazicas. Researchers today doubt Las Casas' figures for the pre-contact levels of the Taíno population, considering them an exaggeration. The pre-contact Americas were full of some incredible cultures. They were expected to ensure the welfare of the tribe and to protect it from harm from both natural and supernatural forces. [22], At the 2010 U.S. census, 1,098 people in Puerto Rico identified as "Puerto Rican Indian," 1,410 identified as "Spanish American Indian," and 9,399 identified as "Taíno." nécessaire]. Ils en connaissaient parfaitement la signification symbolique. In addition to their linguistic contributions, the Taino peoplealso shaped the way Spanish settlements in America farmed, traded, and established ways of living. Ce dernier appelé batu se jouait dans les batey. At the time of European contact, the Taíno were divided into several groups. À cette fin, il confectionnait des idoles en coton, pierre, os, coquillages, etc., qui recevaient le nom de cemíes. [31] In Puerto Rico, 21st-century studies have shown that a high proportion of people have Amerindian mtDNA. Baibrama was a minor zemi worshiped for his assistance in growing cassava and curing people from its poisonous juice. In the 1960s this trend accelerated among Puerto Rican communities in the mainland United States, at a time of rising activism by African Americans and Native Americans of mainland tribes. Leur mode de vie Ils sont les survivants du massacre de 1511, qui fit suite à une rébellion contre les Espagnols, fomentée par Agüeybana II le brave. Taíno groups came into conflict with the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles. Ils fabriquaient divers types d’objets tel le hamac qu'ils appelaient coy. (This was a matrilineal kinship system, with social status passed through the female lines.) Before certain ceremonies, Taínos would purify themselves, either by inducing vomiting (with a swallowing stick) or by fasting. Until now", "Ancient Islanders Visited by Columbus Not 'Extinct,' Study Finds", "Opinion | Ancient DNA Is Changing How We Think About the Caribbean", "A genetic history of the pre-contact Caribbean", "American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes in the United States and Puerto Rico: 2010 (CPH-T-6)", "The Arawack language of Guiana in its linguistic and ethnological relations", "Rebuilding the genome of a hidden ethnicity", "El desarrollo del cacicazgo en las sociedades tardías de Puerto Rico -", "Bulletin : Smithsonian Institution. Often urbanites have considered such cultural traits as backward, however. Ce mythe correspond à l'aventure des jumeaux héroïques décrite dans le Popol-Vuh : le livre sacré du peuple maya K'iche. She is identified as the goddess of the hurricanes or as the zemi of storms. Caciques enjoyed the privilege of wearing golden pendants called guanín, living in square bohíos, instead of the round ones of ordinary villagers, and sitting on wooden stools to be above the guests they received. Estas costumbres fueron cuidadosamente estudiadas y reveladas al mundo por el etnologo cubano Jose Antonio Garcia Molina en su libro Huellas Vivas Del Indocubano, Habana: ( Editorial De Ciencias Sociales 2007 ). Indios tainos - YouTube. [65] Since they lived separately from men, they were able to decide when they wanted to participate in sexual contact. Women processed the poisonous variety of cassava by squeezing it to extract the toxic juices. "[15], The Spanish conquered various Taíno chiefdoms during the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century. [8], Frank Moya Pons, a Dominican historian, documented that Spanish colonists intermarried with Taíno women. Once the most numerous indigenous people of the Caribbean, the Taino may have numbered one or two million at … [42] They followed a very efficient nature harvesting and agricultural production system. After marriage, women wore a small cotton apron, called a nagua. L'origine des indiens taïnos est controversée. [51], Contrary to mainland practices, corn was not ground into flour and baked into bread, but was cooked and eaten off the cob. [62] Hatuey, a Taíno chieftain who had fled from Hispaniola to Cuba with 400 natives to unite the Cuban natives, was burned at the stake on February 2, 1512. Taíno groups came into conflict with the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles. Les loix des batiments suivant la coutume de Paris traitant de ce qui concerne les servitudes reelles, les rapports des jures experts. Often, the general population lived in large circular buildings (bohios), constructed with wooden poles, woven straw, and palm leaves. Luigi Ferrari Bravo, Professor at the University of Rome, examines in his course the …. Taíno activists have created two unique writing scripts. [98], While the scholar Yolanda Martínez-San Miguel sees the development of the Neo-Taino movement in Puerto Rico as a useful counter to the domination of the island by the United States and the Spanish legacies of island society, she also notes that the Neo-Taino movement in Puerto Rico "could be seen as a useless anachronistic reinvention of a 'Boricua coqui' identity. [61] These cruel practices inspired many revolts by the Taíno and campaigns against the Spanish — some being successful, some not. Corn bread becomes moldy faster than cassava bread in the high humidity of the Caribbean. He concludes that, even though the Spanish were aware of deadly diseases such as smallpox, there is no mention of them in the New World until 1519, meaning perhaps they didn't spread as fast as initially believed, and that unlike Europeans, the indigenous populations were subjected to slavery, exploitation, and forced labor in gold and silver mines on an enormous scale. It was about one inch thick and was similar to the coco macaque. [36][full citation needed] The cacique and his family lived in rectangular buildings (caney) of similar construction, with wooden porches. On les trouve surtout dans le quartier de las Indieras de la municipalité de Maricao, au centre-est de l'île. "[78] It would take some time before the Taíno revolted against their oppressors — both Indian and Spanish alike — and many military campaigns before Emperor Charles V eradicated the encomienda system as a form of slavery. L'organisation politique en castes dominantes et laborieuses se calque également sur l'organisation quadripartite de la société maya classique. [citation needed], Taínos believed that Jupias, the souls of the dead, would go to Coaybay, the underworld, and there they rest by day. [10], Sixteen autosomal studies of peoples in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean and its diaspora (mostly Puerto Ricans) have shown that between 10–20% of their DNA is indigenous. He said, "They will give all that they do possess for anything that is given to them, exchanging things even for bits of broken crockery," he noted upon meeting them in the Bahamas in 1492. They suffered very high mortality from the new diseases. Eli D. Oquendo-Rodríguez. He was punished by being turned into stone, or a bird, a frog, or a reptile, depending on interpretation of the myth. Modern historians, linguists and anthropologists now hold that the term Taíno should refer to all the Taíno/Arawak nations, except for the Caribs, who are not seen to belong to the same people. Le mot cacique, par exemple, contient la syllabe ca de cauni, or car le cacique représentait le pouvoir solaire du dieu du feu; bohique tient ses origines de boa, coa ou toa, et de la maison rectangulaire, le bohio, associée à la moitié serpent de la tribu, en son ordre relevant du principe de dualité. Taíno cultivation was converted to Spanish methods. [20][21], The remaining Taíno intermarried with Europeans and Africans, and became incorporated into the Spanish colonies. Tobacco, calabashes (West Indian pumpkins), and cotton were grown around the houses. Comment ajouter mes sources ? En 1907, Fewkes étudia les idoles tainas et aboutit à la conclusion suivante : les Taïnos croyaient en deux êtres surnaturels appelés cemies qui étaient les géniteurs des autres. Plus tard, après le retour des navires en Europe, il va organiser une incursion au Marién pour y détruire le fort "La navidad" et en exterminer les trente-neuf marins restés sur l'île. Voir la page de discussion pour plus de détails. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2011. Ils chassaient de petits rongeurs, des iguanes, quelques variétés d'oiseaux et de serpents, ils pêchaient à l'hameçon, aux filets, ou avec du poison, etc. Ils se distrayaient de diverses manières : danse, musique et jeu de pelote. Census records from the year 1514 reveal that 40% of Spanish men on the island of Hispaniola had Taíno wives. [11], Scholars also note that contemporary rural Dominicans retain elements of Taíno culture: including linguistic features, agricultural practices, food ways, medicine, fishing practices, technology, architecture, oral history, and religious views. Recent research reveals a high percentage of mixed ancestry in the populations of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Les Taïnos la pratiquaient vraisemblablement avec la même ferveur rituelle. "They were very well built, with very handsome bodies and very good faces....They do not carry arms or know them....They should be good servants. Néanmoins des études de l'ADN mitochondrial (maternel), réalisées en 2002 par le Dr Juan Carlos Martínez Cruzado, ont permis de découvrir que 61,1 % des Portoricains et 15 % des Dominicains[7] descendraient d'une femme taïno[8]. Coutume / usage maintain their technical meaning in the background, ... [Show full abstract] as the rhyme usage / hiretage proves, when the lover becomes the "fief of love" of his lady. Baltimore: U of Illinois, 2015. Dale, Corrine H., and J. H. E. Paine. The Taíno culture as documented developed on the Caribbean islands. Son nom taïno était Yokahuma (Huma=lune). Cependant, le trait le plus caractéristique de la mythologie taïno était de comparer les esprits aux hommes, animaux, plantes et aux êtres inanimés. For the language, see, Please help by moving some material from it into the body of the article. [73] They had no resistance to Old World diseases, notably smallpox. Indios tainos. These Taíno were accorded land and a charter from the royal administration. Scholars believe that epidemic disease (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus) was an overwhelming cause of the population decline of the indigenous people,[87] and also attributed a "large number of Taíno the continuing bondage systems" that existed. Atabey was the zemi of the moon, fresh waters, and fertility. While the populations of Europe rebounded following the devastating population decline associated with the Black Death, there was no such rebound for the indigenous populations of the Caribbean. ], as a result, there were no Taíno left to cultivate their own crops and feed their population. [47] Advisers who assisted in operational matters of assigning and supervising communal work, planting and harvesting crops, and keeping peace among the village's inhabitants, were selected from among the nitaínos. The codes were aimed at giving Bordeaux wine a position of dominance over the region and in the English wine market.. The father put his son's bones into a gourd or calabash. [38], Some words that they used, such as barbacoa ("barbecue"), hamaca ("hammock"), kanoa ("canoe"), tabaco ("tobacco"), yuca, batata ("sweet potato"), and juracán ("hurricane"), have been incorporated into Spanish and English. Martínez Cruzado, a geneticist at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez said celebrating and learning about their Taíno roots is helping Puerto Ricans feel connected to one another. [16][17], Columbus was surprised by the civility of the Taíno people. [94][95] Today, Taínos from places such as the diaspora in the United States and the islands, are gathering together. [39] Individuals and kinship groups that previously had some prestige and rank in the tribe began to occupy the hierarchical position that would give way to the cacicazgo. Ferrari Bravo, Luigi, “Méthodes de recherche de la coutume internationale dans la pratique des États … Their diet consisted mainly of seafood and cassava. Taíno home furnishings included cotton hammocks (hamaca), sleeping and sitting mats made of palms, wooden chairs (dujo or duho) with woven seats and platforms, and cradles for children. This symbolized the first Taíno mythical cacique Anacacuya, whose name means "star of the center", or "central spirit." Il semble être avéré que le cycle mythologique du Popol Vuh exerça une forte influence aux Antilles. [12] A recent study of a population in eastern Puerto Rico, where the majority of persons tested claimed Taíno ancestry and pedigree, showed that they had 61% mtDNA (distant maternal ancestry) from the Taíno, and 0% Y-chromosome DNA (distant paternal ancestry) from the indigenous people. Symboliquement, les deux équipes reproduisent la lutte entre les dieux du ciel et de la terre pour la possession du soleil. Les Taïnos étaient divisés en un grand nombre de cacicazgos ("zone d'un cacique") de dimension inégale, parfois tributaires d'autres cacicazgos. In Hispaniola, a Taíno chieftain named Enriquillo mobilized more than 3,000 Taíno in a successful rebellion in the 1520s. [14] Taíno communities ranged from small settlements to larger centers of up to 3,000 people. Less important crops such as corn were raised in simple clearings created by slash and burn technique. La coutume des ancêtres: Renel, Charles: Çerez Tercihlerinizi Seçin Alışveriş deneyiminizi geliştirmek, hizmetlerimizi sunmak, müşterilerin hizmetlerimizi nasıl kullandığını anlayarak iyileştirmeler yapabilmek ve ilgi alanlarına göre özelleştirilmiş reklamlar … Ces habitations étaient construites avec des feuilles de hinea (qui se ramasse dans les rivières et les fleuves), et du bois. De retour vendredi 27 décembre ! Taíno society was based on a matrilineal system and descent was traced through the mother. Tinker, T & Freeland, M. 2008. Au cours de leurs migrations dans les Caraïbes, les Taino se sont différenciés en plusieurs groupes : les Taino Lucayan (aux actuelles Bahamas), les Taino occidentaux (à Cuba), les Taino centraux (à Hispaniola et Porto Rico) et les Taino orientaux, dans les petites Antilles[2]. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2005. Once this happened, some of the Taíno would dive into the water to assist in retrieving the catch. L'Organisation Du Travail Selon La Coutume Des Ateliers Et La Loi Du Decalogue: Avec Un Precis D'Observations Comparees Sur La Distinction Du Bien Et: Le Play, Frederic: The Taíno believed that everyone living in their islands should eat properly. They inhabited the Greater Antilles (comprising Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola [Haiti and the Dominican Republic], and Puerto Rico) in the Caribbean Sea. On November 19, 1493, Christopher Columbus on his second trip discovered the island of Puerto Rico that has inhabited by an aboriginal tribe that he called “Indians” because he thought he had discovered India. Copy link. He subdivides the Taíno into three main groups: Classic Taíno, mostly from Haiti, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic; Western Taíno, or sub-Taíno, for the population from Jamaica, Cuba (except for the western tip), and the Bahamian archipelago; and Eastern Taíno for those from the Virgin Islands to Montserrat.[27]. Manatees were speared and fish were caught in nets, speared, trapped in weirs, or caught with hook and line. [67] Potentially, this meant Taíno women could make important choices for the village and could assign tasks to tribe members. Sur la photo ci-jointe apparaissent également des repères genrés : "La tortue" symbole féminin désignant un objet appartement à une cacique. [15] The figures are debated, and a 2020 genetic analysis estimated the population of Hispaniola at the time to be no more than a few tens of thousands of people. [93], A genetic study published in 2018 provided some evidence of a present-day Caribbean population being related to the Taínos. The Taínos are a subgroup of the Arawak Indians. The men lived separately. Some individuals have slightly higher scores, and others have lower scores, or no indigenous DNA at all. Some sources report that, despite women being free and powerful before the contact era, they became the first commodities up for Spaniards to trade, or often, steal. These efforts are known as the "Taíno restoration", a revival movement for Taíno culture that seeks official recognition of the survival of the Taíno people. Seccion "Conoce lo Tuyo" de TeleCómicas, Telemundo. Sa mère, déesse existant depuis toujours également, possède différents noms : Atabex, Yermaoguacar, Apito et Zuimaco. [citation needed] The purpose of the military expedition was to capture the indigenous peoples. [81] This forced labor eventually led to the Taíno rebellions, in which the Spaniards responded with violent military expeditions known as cabalgadas. Par exemple, les caciques les plus importants de l'île de Porto Rico à l'époque de l'arrivée des conquistadors (avec leurs zones de pouvoir respectives) sont : Les peuples étaient organisés dans les clairières de la forêt, à l'intérieur des terres, avec deux types d'habitats : le bohío, circulaire, habitat commun des habitants du yucayeque, et le caney, plus grand et rectangulaire où habitait le cacique avec sa famille. Women's Roles in Latin America and the Caribbean. [citation needed] The origin of the oceans is described in the story of a huge flood that occurred when a father murdered his son (who was about to murder the father). [citation needed], The Taíno had a matrilineal system of kinship, descent, and inheritance. This is a list of known Taínos, some of which were caciques (male and female tribal chiefs).Their names are in ascending alphabetical order and the table may be re-sorted by clicking on the arrows in the column header cells. Bienvenue sur le site web officiel de l'Ambassade de la République des Philippines en France. They were governed by male chiefs known as caciques, who inherited their position through their mother's noble line. [40] According to archeological evidence, the Taíno islands were able to support a high number of people for approximately 1,500 years. [44], Taíno staples included vegetables, fruit, meat, and fish. Dans ces trois dernières, cette galette se nomme Kassav). Joyeux Noël ! Women on the Edge: Ethnicity and Gender in Short Stories by American Women. Old French law, referred to in French as l'Ancien Droit, was the law of the Kingdom of France until the French Revolution.In the north of France were the Pays de coutumes ('customary countries'), where customary laws were in force, while at the south were the Pays de droit écrit ('countries of written law'), where Roman law had remained paramount. Some groups of people currently identify as Taíno, most notably among Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and Cubans, both on the Caribbean islands themselves and on the United States mainland. [26] But, contemporary scholars have also recognized that the Taíno had developed a distinct language and culture. Ils décoraient leur corps de tatouages religieux pour se protéger des mauvais esprits, et ornaient leurs oreilles et lèvres avec de l'or, de l'argent, des pierres, os ou coquillages. [55], Maquetaurie Guayaba or Maketaori Guayaba was the zemi of Coaybay or Coabey, the land of the dead. Cette pratique pouvait se justifier parce que ne pas avoir d'enfants (ou de fils) était une honte chez les Taïnos. Vous pouvez aider en ajoutant des références ou en supprimant le contenu inédit. Influences culturelles croisées des Taïnos, Vocables de la langue française provenant de la langue taïno, « Le cemi est le seigneur du monde, du ciel et de la terre. [91], Histories of the Caribbean commonly describe the Taino as extinct, killed off by disease, slavery, and war with the Spaniards. [citation needed] They made fishing nets and ropes from cotton and palm. They were made in many forms and materials and have been found in a variety of settings. Yocahú est la divinité suprême, fils et grand-père mythique, invisible et intangible comme le feu, comme le vent, le soleil et la lune ». They love their neighbours as themselves, and they have the sweetest talk in the world, and are gentle and always laughing. [40] The Taíno founded settlements around villages and organized their chiefdoms, or cacicazgos, into a confederation. A few Neo-Taíno groups are pushing not only for recognition, but respect for their cultural assets. Taíno culture as documented is believed to have developed in the Caribbean. Another method used by the Taínos was to shred the stems and roots of poisonous senna plants and throw them into nearby streams or rivers. Bureau of American Ethnology", "Continuity, Cultural Dynamics, and Alcohol: The Reinterpretation of Identity through Chicha in the Andes", "Invaders nearly wiped out Caribbean's first people long before Spanish came, DNA reveals", "The new book 'The Other Slavery' will make you rethink American history", "Origins and genetic legacies of the Caribbean Taino", "Genes of 'extinct' Caribbean islanders found in living people", "CARIBBEAN TAINO AND GUYANA INDIGENOUS PEOPLES CACIQUE CROWN A SYMBOL OF BROTHERHOOD - CELEBRATING OUR INDIGENOUS HERITAGE THE ART OF FEATHER WORK CACHUCHABANA FEATHER HEADDRESSES OF THE TAINO PEOPLES", "Puerto Rico pageant celebrates a vanished native culture", "Taino Warriors? The Encyclopedia of Caribbean Religions Volume 1: A-L; Volume 2: M-Z. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 29 mars 2021 à 08:21. Le chroniqueur Fernández de Oviedo relate qu'à Hispaniola se trouvaient cinq grands caciques en dessous desquels gouvernaient d'autres caciques de moindre importance. Les Tainos utilisaient un système de pictogrammes sacrés dans les pétroglyphes illustrant leurs grottes[3]. Les Espagnols trouvèrent les hommes couverts avec un simple taparrabos (cache-sexe), et les femmes mariées avec un pagne de paille, de coton ou de feuilles nommées naguas. The police des vins were a set of codes and business practices set up in the 13th and 14th century that govern the wine trade within the region of Bordeaux and the use of its port by neighboring areas. "Les becs d'inriris entrecroisés" symbole masculin désignant un objet appartement à un cacique. [43], The chiefs had both temporal and spiritual functions. Nous prenons des vacances ce soir pour ouvrir nos cadeaux. [27] A 2020 genetic analysis estimated the population to be no more than a few tens of thousands of people. This toxin did not affect the edibility of the fish. Les vaincus s'enfuirent dans les montagnes portoricaines où ils purent se cacher grâce à l'épaisseur des forêts. [34], The Taíno lived in settlements called yucayeques, which varied in size depending on the location. Please read the. La société taïno se divisait environ en cinq royaumes contrôlés par des caciques, à qui elle payait des tributs. [56] Zemí petroglyphs were carved on rocks in streams, ball courts, and on stalagmites in caves. Dr. Chanca, a physician who traveled with Christopher Columbus, reported in a letter that Spaniards took as many women as they possibly could and kept them as concubines. Les habits des Taïnos étaient pauvres, en partie à cause du climat peu rigoureux.

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